Palazzo della Pilotta & Galleria Nazionale di Parma
The Galleria Nazionale di Parma (National Gallery of Parma) is an art museum, most known for its collection of old masters’ painting, housed in the Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma, northern Italy,
Along with the Galleria, the Palazzo della Pilotta monumental complex also includes Parma’s National Archaeological Museum, the Bodoni Museum, the Palatine Library, and the reconstruction of the 16th century Farnese Theater.
The palace, built in the late 16th century by Ranuccio Farnese, Duke of Parma, was badly damaged by bombing during the World War Two, and partially reconstructed thereafter. The piazza in front of the palace was built in the late 1990s after a design by Swiss architect Mario Botta.
Galleria Nazionale di Parma
The Galleria Nazionale was founded by Maria Louise Duchess of Parma in the early 19th century to publicly display the state collections of art of the duchy.
Today, the museum’s permanent exhibition features over 700 pieces – sculptures, architectural decorations, drawings, and paintings – dating from the Middle Ages to the 20th century.
Notable pieces on view include works by Benedetto Antelami, Agnolo Gaddi, Fra Angelico, Sandro Botticelli, Giulio Romano, Correggio, Parmigianino, Leonardo da Vinci, Hans Holbein the Younger, El Greco, Antony van Dick, Guercino, Canaletto, Giovanbattista Tiepolo, and Antonio Canova.
The Head of a Woman (also known in Italian as La Scapigliata, meaning lady of the dishevelled hair in Italian) painting by Leonardo da Vinci is arguably the most famous artwork on display at the Galleria Nazionale.
Museo Archeologico Nazionale
Founded in 1760 by Philip of Spain, Duke of Parma, the archaeological museum presents a large collection of antiquities and ancient artifacts.
The collection is divided into four main nuclei.
The Egyptian collection comprises statuettes, sarcophagi, papyri, scarab amulets, and vases. The Parma collection features various artifacts found in sites near the city, including prehistoric, Etruscan, Roman, and early-Middle-ages pieces.
Another section comprises Roman statues, sculptural pieces, and Greek vases collected by various members of the House of Farnese and the House of Gonzaga.
The core of the archaeological museum’s collections features a number of artifacts found in the 18th century excavations of the ancient Roman town of Veleia, which includes twelve marble statues dating back to the 1st century AD, bronze statuettes, and coins.
The Museo Bodoniano is dedicated to the famous 18th century printer typographer, and type-designer Giambattista Bodoni (1740 – 1813), most known today as the creator of the Bodoni typefaces. The museum feature exhibitions focused on history and techniques of book printing from 15th to 19th century, and on Bodoni’s life and professional career
The Teatro Farnese is one of the world’s most important examples of late Renaissance theater. Built in 1618 after a design by architect Gian Battista Aleotti (also known as l’Argenta), the theater was inspired in its architecture by the Olympic Theater in Vicenza by Andrea Palladio. The Teatro Farnese is a monumental wooden structure, decorated with paintings and gypsum sculptures, with a u-shaped seating area which could accommodate up to 3,000 people. Almost completely destroyed during WWII, the theater was reconstructed in 1960 partly reusing its original elements and decorations.
The Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma, exterior view and main courtyard; photos © Inexhibit
National Gallery of Parma, main entrance and monumental stairwell; photos © Inexhibit
Parmigianino (Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola), Turkish Slave, ca, 1533, oil on panel; National Gallery of Parma
The 17th century Farnese Theater; photo: Darren and Brad
Cover image: Leonardo da Vinci, Head of a Woman, ca. 1508, oil on wood; photo: Darren and Brad